Used 2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium in Johnson City, TN

View More
Send to Mobile
Email
Print
View Vehicle Photo full screen
  • Used 2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium 1
  • Used 2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium 2
  • Used 2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium 3
  • Used 2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium 4
  • Used 2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium 5
  • Used 2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium 6
  • Used 2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium 7
  • Used 2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium 8
  • Used 2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium 9
  • Used 2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium 10
  • Used 2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium 11
  • Used 2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium 12
  • Used 2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium 13
  • Used 2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium 14
  • Used 2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium 15
  • Used 2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium 16
  • Used 2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium 17
  • Used 2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium 18
  • Used 2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium 19
  • Used 2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium 20
  • Used 2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium 21
  • Used 2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium 22
  • Used 2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium 23
  • Used 2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium 24
  • Used 2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium 25
  • Used 2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium 26
  • Used 2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium 27
View All
Previous Vehicle Photo
Next Vehicle Photo

Installed Options

Internet Special!
Gatton Great Deal
$16,300
Processing Fee
$599
Sales Price
$16,899
Sign Up For Price Drop Alerts

Vehicle Details

Mileage 90,804
Trim 2.5i Premium
Stock # 01844PM
VIN 4S4BSAFC6H3401844
Exterior Color Whc
Interior Color Slate Black
Gas Mileage City:25 Hwy:32
Doors 4
Passengers
Engine 4 cyl 2.5l Gasoline
Transmission CVT Lineartronic
Drivetrain AWD
Carfax One Owner

Currently Viewing

2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium

Used 2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium

Mileage: 90,804

Gatton Great Deal
$16,300
Processing Fee
$599
Sales Price
$16,899

Description

Clean CARFAX. CARFAX One-Owner. 2017 Subaru Outback 2.5i Premium PremiumThank you for looking at our inventory and please call 423-282-2493 with any questions or for more information. Sincerely, the Bill Gatton of Johnson City Staff. 2909 North Roan St. Johnson City,...
Show More

Additional Vehicle Information

  • Features
  • Specs

Features

Features

  • Safety
  • Comfort
  • Technology
  • Mechanical
  • Exterior
  • Interior

Safety

Airbags

Front airbags dual seat cushion, dual
Airbag deactivation occupant sensing passenger
Side airbags front
Side curtain airbags front, rear
Side-curtain airbag rollover sensor

Safety

Rearview monitor in dash
Impact absorbing seats dual front
Child safety door locks
Child seat anchors LATCH system
Energy absorbing steering column
Safety brake pedal system
Body side reinforcements side impact door beams
Camera system rearview
Impact sensor fuel cut-off
Crumple zones front, rear

Security

Power door locks anti-lockout
Anti-theft system engine immobilizer, alarm with remote
2-stage unlocking doors

Mirrors

Side mirror adjustments power, manual folding
Side mirrors heated

Comfort

Convenience Features

Storage cargo tray, in floor, front seatback, grocery bag holder, cargo tie-down anchors and hooks, sunglasses holder, door pockets
Cupholders front, rear
Steering wheel tilt and telescopic
Power outlet(s) 12V cargo area, two 12V front
One-touch windows 2
Reading lights front, rear
Cargo area light
Cruise control
Power steering
Retained accessory power
Multi-function remote keyless entry, panic alarm, trunk release
Power windows lockout button
Courtesy lights door
Overhead console front
Steering wheel mounted controls audio, cruise control, phone, paddle shifter, voice control
Rearview mirror manual day/night
Additional key removable valet
Cargo cover
Vanity mirrors dual illuminating
Assist handle rear, front
Illuminated power window switches
Center console front console with armrest and storage, illuminated

Comfort Features

Floor mat material carpet
Shift knob trim leather
Steering wheel trim leather
Armrests rear center with cupholders
Floor mats rear, front
Floor material carpet
Dash trim metallic

Air Conditioning

Front air conditioning automatic climate control
Front air conditioning zones dual
Rear vents second row
Air filtration

Technology

Audio System

Radio voice operated, touch screen display, AM/FM, HD radio
Auxiliary audio input Bluetooth, jack, USB, iPod/iPhone
Internet radio app Pandora, iHeartRadio, Stitcher, AHA
Antenna type diversity, mast
In-Dash CD single disc, MP3 Playback
Total speakers 6
Radio data system
Speed sensitive volume control
Satellite radio SiriusXM ready

Telematics

Electronic messaging assistance with read function, voice operated
Satellite communications voice guided directions
Smart device app function vehicle location, maintenance status, lock operation, horn/light operation, maintenance scheduling
Driver assistance app roadside assistance
Wireless data link Bluetooth

In Car Entertainment

Connected in-car apps weather, news
Infotainment STARLINK
Infotainment screen size 7 in.

Instrumentation

Trip computer
Driver information system
Clock
Gauge tachometer
Digital odometer
External temperature display
Warnings and reminders lamp failure, low fuel, engine oil, coolant, tire fill alert
Fuel economy display MPG, range
Trip odometer

Mechanical

Drivetrain

Drive mode selector
4WD type full time
Center differential mechanical
Axle ratio 4.11

Brakes

Rear brake type ventilated disc
Rear brake diameter 11.8
Front brake diameter 12.4
Front brake type ventilated disc
Braking assist
Electronic brakeforce distribution
ABS 4-wheel
Power brakes
Electronic parking brake auto off
Cornering brake control

Suspension

Front suspension classification independent
Rear suspension classification independent
Front struts MacPherson
Rear suspension type double wishbone
Rear spring type coil
Front stabilizer bar
Rear stabilizer bar
Front spring type coil
Front suspension type lower control arms
Rear shock type gas
Front shock type gas

Stability and Traction

Stability control
Traction control
Hill holder control

Engine

Alternator 110 amps
Battery saver
Battery maintenance-free

Exterior

Exterior Features

Active grille shutters
Exhaust tip color metallic
Front bumper color body-color
Mirror color body-color
Door handle color body-color
Rear spoiler roofline
Rear spoiler color body-color
Rear bumper color body-color
Window trim chrome
Headlight bezel color black
Rocker panel color black
Grille color silver

Tires and Rims

Spare tire size temporary
Tire type all season
Wheels alloy
Spare tire mount location inside
Spare wheel type steel
Tire Pressure Monitoring System

Lights

Daytime running lights
Front fog lights
Exterior entry lights security approach lamps
Headlights wiper activated, auto delay off, auto on/off, halogen

Windows

Rear wiper intermittent, reverse gear sensitive, with washer
Heated windshield wiper rests
Window defogger rear
Front wipers variable intermittent
Tinted glass
Power windows safety reverse
Rear privacy glass

Doors

Liftgate window fixed
Rear door type liftgate

Roof

Roof rack crossbars
Roof rails
Roof rails color black

Interior

Seats

Driver seat power adjustments height, 10, lumbar, reclining
Passenger seat heated
Driver seat heated
Rear headrests 3, adjustable
Passenger seat manual adjustments 4, reclining
Rear seat folding split, flat
Front headrests 2, adjustable
Front seat type bucket
Upholstery cloth
Rear seat type 60-40 split bench

Seatbelts

Seatbelt pretensioners front
Seatbelt force limiters front
Seatbelt warning sensor front
Rear seatbelts 3-point
Front seatbelts 3-point
Emergency locking retractors front

Steering

Turns lock-to-lock 2.8
Steering ratio 14.0

Specs

Specs

Drive Type

Drive Type AWD

Seating

Standard Seating 5
Max Seating 5
Head Room (front) 40.8 in
Head Room (rear) 38.9 in
Hip Room (front) 55.5 in
Hip Room (rear) 55 in
Shoulder Room (front) 58.1 in
Shoulder Room (rear) 57.3 in
Leg Room (front) 42.9 in
Leg Room (rear) 38.1 in
Seating Rows 2

Measurements of Size & Shape

Length 189.6 in
Width 81.3 in
Width (without mirrors) 72.4 in
Height 66.1 in
Wheelbase 108.1 in
Ground Clearance 8.7 in
Angle of Approach 19.3 degrees
Angle of Departure 22.7 degrees
Track Width (front) 61.8 in
Track Width (rear) 62.2 in
Break-over Angle 20.0 degrees

Measurements of Weight

Gross Vehicle Weight Rating 4695 lbs
Gross Vehicle Weight Range 4001-5000 lbs
Curb Weight 3600 lbs
Max Towing Capacity 2700 lbs

Truck Specifications

Max Payload 1095 lbs

Interior Dimensions

Cargo Volume 35.5 cu ft
Interior Volume 143.6 cu ft
Passenger Volume 108.1 cu ft
Cargo Volume (rear seats down) 73.3 cu ft

Performance Specifications

Aerodynamic Drag 0.34 Cd
Turning Circle 36.1 ft

Fuel Tanks

Fuel Capacity 18.5 Gallons

Wheels and Tires

Front Tire Type 225/65R17 102H
Front Wheel Diameter 17.0 x 7.0 in
Rear Tire Type 225/65R17 102H
Rear Wheel Diameter 17.0 x 7.0 in

Awards

Award
10 Most Comfortable Cars Under 30k (2017 Model)
- Kelley Blue Book

Award
5-Year Cost to Own: Best Brand (2017 Model)
- Kelley Blue Book

Award
Automotive Performance, Execution and Layout (APEAL) Study: Top Models in Segment (2017 Model)
- J.D. Power and Associates

Award
Best Bet: Mid-Size SUV (2017 Model)
- The Car Book

Award
Best Cars for Commuters (2017 Model)
- Cars.com

Award
Best Cars for Families (2017 Model)
- US News

Award
Best Family Cars (2017 Model)
- Kelley Blue Book

Award
Best Vehicles By Class: Midsize Wagons (2017 Model)
- GreenerCars.org

Award
Best Wagons (2017 Model)
- US News

Award
Brand Image Awards: Best Overall Brand (2017 Model)
- Kelley Blue Book

Award
Brand Image Awards: Best Performance Brand (2017 Model)
- Kelley Blue Book

Award
Brand Image Awards: Most Trusted Brand (2017 Model)
- Kelley Blue Book

Award
Buyers Choice: Best Wagon (2017 Model)
- Autobytel

Award
Car Rankings: Best Wagons (2017 Model)
- US News

Award
Customer Love Index Winner: Mass-Market Brand (2017 Model)
- Strategic Vision

Award
Family Car of the Year: Nominee (2017 Model)
- Cars.com

Award
Highest Retained Value - Popular Brand (2017 Model)
- Intellichoice

Award
Most Fuel Efficient: SUVs (2017 Model)
- Kelley Blue Book

Award
Most Fuel Efficient: Wagons (2017 Model)
- Kelley Blue Book

Award
Residual Value Award: Mainstream Brand (2017 Model)
- ALG

Award
Residual Value Award: Midsize Utility Vehicle - 2 Row (2017 Model)
- ALG

Award
Top 10 Wagons (2017 Model)
- Autobytel

Award
Top Recommended Crossovers/SUVs (2017 Model)
- Edmunds

Award
Top Recommended Wagons (2017 Model)
- Edmunds

Award
Top Safety Pick+ - Midsize Cars (2017 Model)
- Insurance Institute for Highway Safety

Award
Total Quality Impact Winner: Mass-Market Brand (2017 Model)
- Strategic Vision

Award
Total Quality Impact Winner: Mid-Size Hatchback Segment (2017 Model)
- Strategic Vision

Crash-Test Ratings

2017 Subaru Outback SW AWD

Overall
Full StarFull StarFull StarFull StarFull Star
Front Crash Overall
Full StarFull StarFull StarFull StarFull Star
Front Crash Driver
Full StarFull StarFull StarFull StarFull Star
Front Crash Passenger
Full StarFull StarFull StarFull StarFull Star
Side Crash Overall
Full StarFull StarFull StarFull StarFull Star
Side Barrier Overall
N/A
Side Barrier Driver
Full StarFull StarFull StarFull StarFull Star
Side Barrier Passenger
Full StarFull StarFull StarFull StarFull Star
Side Pole Driver
Full StarFull StarFull StarFull StarFull Star
Side Combined Front
N/A
Side Combined Rear
Full StarFull StarFull StarFull StarFull Star
Rollover
Full StarFull StarFull StarFull StarEmpty Star

Green Score

EPA Green Score ( California LEV-III SULEV30/PZEV ?
EPA and California-required standards. The names refer to tables of numerical limits for the various air pollutants allowed by the standards.
)

Fuel Type Gasoline
Air Pollution Score ?
The Air Pollution Score is based on the government emission standards for which the vehicle was certified to comply with and reflects vehicle tailpipe emissions that contribute to local and regional air pollution, creating problems such as haze, and health issues.
9
1
9
10
Greenhouse Gas Score ?
This score reflects fuel emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases.
6
1
6
10
Smartway ?
SmartWay is a designation earned by those vehicles that have combined Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Scores that place them in the top tier (approximately the top 20%) of environmental performers. SmartWay Elite is reserved for the best of the best.
N/A

EPA Green Score ( Federal Tier 3 Bin 160 ?
EPA and California-required standards. The names refer to tables of numerical limits for the various air pollutants allowed by the standards.
)

Fuel Type Gasoline
Air Pollution Score ?
The Air Pollution Score is based on the government emission standards for which the vehicle was certified to comply with and reflects vehicle tailpipe emissions that contribute to local and regional air pollution, creating problems such as haze, and health issues.
5
1
5
10
Greenhouse Gas Score ?
This score reflects fuel emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases.
6
1
6
10
Smartway ?
SmartWay is a designation earned by those vehicles that have combined Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Scores that place them in the top tier (approximately the top 20%) of environmental performers. SmartWay Elite is reserved for the best of the best.
N/A

EPA Green Score ( Federal Tier 3 Bin 70 ?
EPA and California-required standards. The names refer to tables of numerical limits for the various air pollutants allowed by the standards.
)

Fuel Type Gasoline
Air Pollution Score ?
The Air Pollution Score is based on the government emission standards for which the vehicle was certified to comply with and reflects vehicle tailpipe emissions that contribute to local and regional air pollution, creating problems such as haze, and health issues.
7
1
7
10
Greenhouse Gas Score ?
This score reflects fuel emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases.
6
1
6
10
Smartway ?
SmartWay is a designation earned by those vehicles that have combined Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Scores that place them in the top tier (approximately the top 20%) of environmental performers. SmartWay Elite is reserved for the best of the best.
N/A

EPA Green Score ( LEV-III LEV160 ?
EPA and California-required standards. The names refer to tables of numerical limits for the various air pollutants allowed by the standards.
)

Fuel Type Gasoline
Air Pollution Score ?
The Air Pollution Score is based on the government emission standards for which the vehicle was certified to comply with and reflects vehicle tailpipe emissions that contribute to local and regional air pollution, creating problems such as haze, and health issues.
5
1
5
10
Greenhouse Gas Score ?
This score reflects fuel emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases.
6
1
6
10
Smartway ?
SmartWay is a designation earned by those vehicles that have combined Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Scores that place them in the top tier (approximately the top 20%) of environmental performers. SmartWay Elite is reserved for the best of the best.
N/A

Testimonials

Michelle Burke
Michelle Burke
GOOGLE
8-14-2020
Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star

I went to Bill Gatton Mazda to test drive a 2020 CX-30. It was simply a great experience! I never felt pressured and I was confident that Jeremy was always being honest with me. At 71, I've purchased several new cars and my BS detector is well developed. But it never went off. Because I was so picky about the specific exterior and interior I wanted, I did not end up purchasing from Bill Gatton, but I would not hesitate to recommend them to family and friends. Jeremy and other staff members went above and beyond!

Danny Keplinger
Danny Keplinger
GOOGLE
8-5-2020
Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star

Good folks

Lee Whitson
Lee Whitson
GOOGLE
7-15-2020
Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star

Great sales and service department!

Jerrod Berven
Jerrod Berven
GOOGLE
6-21-2020
Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star

Positive: Professionalism, ValueOur experience was excellent. We worked with Worth Peak, and from the moment we got there to the moment we left, there was a clear focus on getting us the best bang for our buck. Everything was transparent and timely. Thank you!

Daniel Smith is amazing

John Hale
CARS
5-29-2020
Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star

I was in the market for a pre-owned auto, i looked around at my local dealers (Knoxville). Within 3 days of the "search", i had spent almost 12 hours inside the dealerships. Each time, i would make closer and closer, but there was always something. I know i do not enjoy the whole process, as i am certain not many do. I text my interest in the auto, i received an email from Daniel, after a few strings of emails, i made the call. I spoke with Daniel, he notified me of the imperfections of the auto, even sent me pictures of the car before i made the almost 2 hour drive. After i make it to the dealership, i felt no pressure, i wasn't "Sold to". He allowed me to look at and ask questions on my own time. I had an amazing experience and yes, i would buy again from Daniel Smith.

Natasha Waye
Natasha Waye
GOOGLE
5-25-2020
Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star

The man we dealt with, Zach, was very patient and knew exactly what he was doing.

Molly VanBuren
Molly VanBuren
GOOGLE
5-23-2020
Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star

I purchased my vehicle here with the help of Zach Johnson. He was an amazing salesperson and answered all of our questions. He was very patient with us and helped me pick the vehicle that worked best for me. I highly recommend going here to make your purchase and ask for Zach! The whole staff was very nice and helpful. Great car buying experience!!

Mohamed Ali
Mohamed Ali
GOOGLE
5-23-2020
Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star

The Customer Service Ryan Quillen did a great đź‘Ť job.

Roy Roach
Roy Roach
GOOGLE
5-13-2020
Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star

This is the third Mazda we've bought from Bill Gatton Mazda, and each time we have been treated very well! We feel the vehicles are exceptional, and the service and sales teams are professional. Our Salesperson Lloyd Mullins, worked very hard on our behalf and Chris Hill the Sales Manager was very attentive throughout the process. Jesse Ford the General Manager also helped to keep the pencil sharpened to get us what we wanted for what we could afford. It felt great to patronize a business that made us feel we were truly valued as customers.

Benjamin Meeks
Benjamin Meeks
GOOGLE
5-7-2020
Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star Empty Star

Very friendly and helpful in looking for a used car. Dealer website is easily searched for inventory. Cars where cleaned and sanitized before test drive.

Indya Scalf
Indya Scalf
GOOGLE
5-7-2020
Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star

Positive: Professionalism, Punctuality, Quality, Value

Trisha Scalf
Trisha Scalf
GOOGLE
5-7-2020
Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star

Positive: Professionalism, Punctuality, Quality, ValueWe bought a vehicle from them a week ago, and it was honestly probably the best deal we have ever gotten at an auto dealership. All of the staff were very helpful and honest. I highly recommend checking them out if you or a loved one is looking for a reliable vehicle at an excellent price!

Ian Moore
Ian Moore
GOOGLE
3-19-2020
Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star
April Maupin
April Maupin
GOOGLE
2-10-2020
Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star

Great service bought a Jeep Liberty off loyd did u

Mike johnson
CARS
1-6-2020
Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star

We went there to look at the Jeep and was running late but loyd really stepped up and helped us and wasn’t pushy like some car lot salesmen can be we were treated very good and the staff were all very professional as well

Amazing

Matthew
CARS
12-21-2019
Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star

I went to look for a car and they made it happen. My salesman fought tooth and nail to get me approved. Best experience I've ever had at a dealership.

"Just traded in my car... "

jjkat
DEALERRATER
10-7-2019
Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star

I just traded in my older CX-5 for a new one. I worked with Jeremy who did a great job of making the sales experience very smooth. I really like the service center here too. I have historically not been a fan of car dealerships, but this one has been the exception. I've bought 2 cars here and been in the service center for multiple maintenance visits.

looking for a good dodge truck

marvin heath
CARS
6-17-2019
Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star Empty Star

the took their time getting back to me on the truck. did tell me it had been in an accident. and they was repairing it.

Jacks Place
Jacks Place
GOOGLE
4-10-2019
Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star
Georgia Richardson
Georgia Richardson
GOOGLE
3-10-2019
Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star

Had oil change. Nice and helpful people. Does great work.

4233412987 Keystone
4233412987 Keystone
GOOGLE
3-10-2019
Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star Empty Star
Barley Woodberry
Barley Woodberry
GOOGLE
3-10-2019
Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star Empty Star

Incredible service department!

Sheri S.
Sheri S.
YAHOO
12-18-2018
Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star

I had to go to Bill Gatton Mazda/Acura, from Morristown, for warranty work on my Mazda 6 and they were wonderful. The service department had a new 2018 Mazda 6 ready for me and they even washed... more

Sheri S.
Sheri S.
YELP
12-18-2018
Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star

I had to go to Bill Gatton Mazda/Acura, from Morristown, for warranty work on my Mazda 6 and they were wonderful. The service department had a new 2018 Mazda 6 ready for me and they even washed my car! I loved the entire experience!

Hallie Muse Mahala
Hallie Muse Mahala
FACEBOOK
6-27-2018
Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star

Great service! Great deals!

Cliff Mahala
Cliff Mahala
FACEBOOK
6-15-2018
Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star Full Star

Great service and staff. Highly recommend.

Read More

Dealership Information

Contact Dealer

Contact Information


Disclaimer

Pricing of vehicles on this web site does not include options that may have been installed at the Dealership. Pricing may include current promotions or incentives. Monthly payment calculator is an estimate and does not include tax, title, license or $599 Processing fees. Please contact the Dealership for latest pricing and monthly payment. Published price subject to change without notice to correct errors or omissions or in the event of inventory fluctuations. Price good until end of month only, please contact store by email or phone for details.

*Prices shown include a destination & handling charge but do not include taxes or license. Destination charges for TLX PMC edition NSX is $1995.00 and other all models is $995.00 or $1025.00. Actual vehicles/accessory costs, labor and installation vary. Please consult your selected dealer.

Government 5-Star Safety Ratings are part of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s (NHTSA’s) New Car Assessment Program. For additional information on the 5-Star Safety Ratings program, please visit www.safercar.gov.

While every effort has been made to ensure display of accurate data, the vehicle listings within this web site may not reflect all accurate vehicle items. Accessories and color may vary. All Inventory listed is subject to prior sale. The vehicle photo displayed may be an example only. Vehicle Photos may not match exact vehicle. Please confirm vehicle price with Dealership. See Dealership for details.

Based on Model Year EPA mileage ratings, reflecting new EPA fuel economy methods beginning with 2008 models. Use for comparison purposes only. Do not compare to models before 2008. Your actual mileage will vary, depending on how you drive and maintain your vehicle, driving conditions, battery pack age/condition (hybrid models only) and other factors.